Maurits Kaptein and I have recently been thinking a lot about persuasion profiling — estimating and adapting to individual differences in responses to influence strategies based on past behavior and other information. With help from students, we’ve been running experiments and building statistical models that implement persuasion profiling.
My thinking on persuasion profiling is very much in BJ Fogg’s footsteps, since he has been talking about persuasion profiling in courses, lab meetings, and personal discussions since 2004 or earlier.
Just yesterday, I came across this transcript of BJ’s presentation for an FTC hearing in 2006. I was struck at how much it anticipates some of what Maurits and I have written recently (more on this later). I’m sure I watched the draft video of the presentation back then and it’s influenced me, even if I forgot some of the details.
Here is the relevant excerpt from BJ’s comments for the FTC:
Persuasion profiling means that each one of us has a different set of persuasion strategies that affect us. Just like we like different types of food or are vulnerable to giving in to different types of food on a diet, we are vulnerable to different types of persuasion strategies.
On the food example, I love old-fashioned popcorn, and if I go to a party and somebody has old-fashioned popcorn, I will probably break down and eat it. On the persuasion side of things, I know I’m vulnerable to trying new things, to challenges and to anything that gets measured. If that’s proposed to me, I’m going to be vulnerable and I’m going to give it a shot.
Whenever we go to a Web site and use an interactive system, it is likely they will be capturing what persuasion strategies work on us and will be using those when we use the service again. The mapping out of what makes me tick, what motivates me can also be bought or sold, just like a credit report.
So imagine I’m going in to buy a new car and the person selling me the car downloads my credit report but also buys my persuasion profile. I may or may not know about this. Imagine if persuasion profiles are available on political campaigns so that when I visit a Web site, the system knows it is B.J. Fogg, and it changes [its] approach based on my vulnerabilities when it comes to persuasion.
Persuasive technology will touch our lives anywhere that we access digital products or services, in the car, in our living room, on the Web, through our mobile phones and so on. Persuasive technology will be all around us, and unlike other media types, where you have 30-second commercial or a magazine ad, you have genres you can understand, when it comes to computer-based persuasion, it is so flexible that it won’t have genre boundaries. It will come to us in the ordinary course of our lives, as we are working on a Web site, as we are editing a document, as we are driving a car. There won’t be clear markers about when you are being persuaded and when you are not.
This last paragraph is about the “genrelessness” of many persuasive technologies. This isn’t directly on the topic of persuasion profiling, but I see it as critically relevant. Persuasion profiling is likely to be most effective when invisible and undisclosed to users. From this and the lack of genre-based flags for persuasive technology it follows that we will frequently be “persuasion profiled” without knowing it.